Test classes help ensure that the custom Apex code we develop in Salesforce is functioning correctly
Salesforce is the uncontested leader in the cloud-based customer relationship management (CRM) software space, allowing businesses to easily manage customer interactions and automate processes. Besides the rich out-of-the box functionality, Salesforce also provides a powerful set of tools for developers to build custom applications and customise the platform according to specific business needs.
The programming language used to write code on the Salesforce platform is Apex. Apex is similar to Java, and it is used to write custom business logic, integrate with external systems, and automate business processes. An important parameter for developing custom applications on the Salesforce platform are the test classes.
In this blog, we discuss the importance of test classes and their benefits, as well as how to write effective test classes.
What are test classes in Salesforce?
They are a piece of code we write in order to test the functionality of our Apex code and ensure that it works as expected.
Test classes are also written in Apex, and they can test individual methods, classes, and triggers. They can be executed in a sandbox environment, which is a replica of the production environment, to simulate the behaviour of the code in the production environment.
Why are Test Classes important in Salesforce?
Test classes are important for several reasons, including:
Ensuring Quality: Test classes help ensure that the code being developed is functioning correctly and meeting the business requirements. By testing the code, developers can identify and fix issues before they are deployed to the production environment.
Compliance: Salesforce requires that a minimum of 75% of all Apex code must be covered by tests (this also accounts for triggers). By following this requirement, developers can ensure that their code is compliant with Salesforce’s best practices.
Efficiency: Test classes help identify issues early in the development process, which reduces the time and resources needed to fix them. By catching issues early, developers can avoid potential delays in the deployment process.
Documentation: Test classes can serve as documentation for the code being developed. By including test cases in the test class, developers can create a comprehensive understanding of the functionality of the code.
Collaboration: Test classes can be used by multiple developers to ensure that the code is functioning as expected. Test classes provide a shared understanding of the code, which can lead to better collaboration between developers.
How to Write Effective Test Classes in Salesforce?
To write effective test classes in Salesforce, developers should follow these best practices:
Test Coverage: Ensure that the test class covers at least 75% of the Apex code being tested. Test all the positive and negative scenarios, edge cases, and exceptions.
Data Setup: Proper data setup is crucial for effective testing. Test data should be created in the test class and should be relevant to the test being performed. Use test data factories and bulk data loading to reduce testing time.
Isolation: Test classes should be isolated from the production data and environment to ensure that they do not interfere with the production data. Test classes should create and delete their test data, and not use existing data from the production environment.
Assert Statements: Use assert statements to ensure that the test class is testing the correct functionality. Assert statements check the results of a test and compare them to the expected results. Use descriptive assert statements to make it easier to understand the purpose of the test case.
Consistency: Maintain consistency between the test class and the code being tested. If the code changes, update the test class accordingly.
Here is an example of a what a test class should look like:
In conclusion, test classes play a critical role in the development of custom applications on the Salesforce platform. By providing a means to test Apex code, developers can ensure that their code meets the requirements and works as expected. Test classes are not only important for quality assurance and compliance, but they also help reduce development time and provide documentation for the code being developed. Following best practices, such as ensuring proper test coverage, data setup, isolation, assert statements, and consistency, can help developers write effective test classes. In short, incorporating test classes into the development process is crucial for ensuring the success and effectiveness of custom Salesforce applications.